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Ancient calendar and date converter. Ancient chronology. Translation of ancient dates in modern chronology

The Gregorian calendar is a time-calculating system based on the cyclic circulation of the Earth around the Sun; the average year duration is assumed to be 365.2425 days; contains 97 leap years for 400 years.
For the first time, the Gregorian calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in Catholic countries on October 4, 1582 to replace the former Julian: the next day after Thursday, October 4 was Friday, October 15. The Gregorian calendar is used in most states and countries of the world. The literature also applies the name - New Style.
Julian calendar - a calendar developed by a group of Alexandrian astronomers led by Sozigen. The calendar is named after Julius Caesar, by decree of which he was introduced to the Roman Empire from January 1, 45 BC. e. The year according to the Julian calendar begins on January 1, since it is on this day from 153 BC. e. Consuls elected by comitia took office.
The Julian calendar replaced the old Roman calendar and was based on the astronomical culture of the Hellenistic Egypt. In Kievan Rusia, the calendar was known as the “Peace Circle,” “Church Circle,” indiction, and “Great Indictiona.”.
Jewish calendar (Heb. ‏ הוחהעברי‏‏‎ ha-lu ́ah ha-ivri ́) is the annual calendar of Jews, the official calendar in Israel (along with the Gregorian calendar). According to this calendar, holidays and Jewish holidays dedicated to events in the synagogues mark birthdays and commemoration days of deceased relatives. It is believed that this year were conducted Jewish studies. Judean era begins October 6/7, 3761 BC. e.
Day, according to the Muslim calendar, begins at sunset, and not at midnight, as in the Gregorian calendar. The beginning of the month is neomyny, that is, the day when the crescent of the moon can be seen in the evening twilight for the first time after the new moon. Neomonas usually occurs 1–3 days after a new moon. The duration of a synodic month averages about 29.53 days, so there may be 29 or 30 days in a month of the Islamic calendar. If the moon is visible in the sky in the evening after the 29th day, then the upcoming day is considered the first day of the new month. If the moon is not visible, then the new day is the 30th day of the current month. Additional days of the month are prohibited, except for a single day serving to keep the new moon near the 1st of the month. This day is included in the month of Dhū al-Ḥijjah.
Persian (Iranian) calendar or Solar Hijra (Pers. تقویم هجری شمسی؛ سالنمای هجری خورشیدی‎) is an astronomical solar calendar that Used as the official calendar in Iran and Afghanistan.
The calendar was developed with the participation of Omar Khayyam, and since then has been refined several times. It leads from the Hijra (resettlement of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622), but is based on the solar (tropical) year, unlike the classical Islamic calendar, so its months always fall on the same seasons. The beginning of the year is the day of the spring equinox (Navruz, the festival of spring), which is determined by astronomical observations on the meridian of the Tehran time.
Аналогичен персидскому календарю.
Аналогичен персидскому календарю. Применяется в Афганистане.
Long account

Tzolkin - a ritual period of 260 days, which is a combination of periods of 20 and 13 days. Each day has a number from 1 to 13, in addition, the days have names that repeat with a period of 20. Haab (Haab) - the civil Mayan calendar. It was a solar calendar consisting of 365 days.For long periods of time, the Mayans used the so-called Long Count, which is the number of days expressed in a mixed 20, 18, and 13-decimal number system.
According to the Bahá'í calendar, the day is the period of time between two consecutive sunsets. In the scripture of the Bayan, the month of Al ā is the month of the Fast. Day Naw-r ӯ for marks the end of the Fast and is the first and festive day of the new year. It falls on the spring equinox, which usually occurs on March 21. The holiday Naw-r should be celebrated on the day when the sun passes into the constellation of Aries (that is, at the time of the vernal equinox), even if it happens just a minute before the sunset. Thus, Naw-R can fall on March 20, 21 or 22, depending on the onset of the equinox.
The essence of the unified national calendar of India is as follows:
I. The era of Shaka is taken as the basis
II. The duration of the solar year of this era is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds;
III. A simple calendar year contains 365 days, and a leap year - 366;
IV. The year begins on the first day of the month of Chaitra, which corresponds to March 22 in ordinary years and March 21 to leap years, that is, the day after the day of the vernal equinox;
V. The year consists of 12 months.
1792 year was declared the beginning of an era. The era of “the birth of Christ” and the beginning of the year from January 1 were abolished. The countdown began on September 22, 1792, from the date of the abolition of royal power and the proclamation of the Republic. The following years began at midnight of the day when the autumnal equinox occurred, in the middle Paris time. The year was divided into 12 months of 30 days.
Common Era

from Creation World

In the 6th century, the world Era of chronology began to be used in Byzantium from the beginning of March 1, 5508 BC. The days were counted in it from Adam, who, based on biblical prerequisites, was created on Friday, March 1, 1 of this era. Proceeding from the fact that this happened in the middle of the sixth day of creation, by analogy it was assumed that the Savior of the world descended to earth in the middle of the sixth millennium, for "the Lord has one day, like a thousand years, and a thousand years, like one day" ( 2 Petr. 3, 8), and with minor clarifications related to the Easter calculations, after 5508 years in Adam. It was the Byzantine numeration system that for many centuries took an important place in the calendar system of Russia.

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